Animal Research (vivisection) had nothing to do with these Medical Advances, by Dr. M. Beddow Bayly.
Member Royal College of Surgeons, Licentiate Royal College of Physicians, U.K.
This below article is from the book 1000 Doctors Against Vivisection, a free PDF is available via this page: Doctors Against Vivisection on Scientific & Medical Grounds
Note: 'Vivisection' refers to experiments on live animals & humans. These usually involve making "animal models" of disease, which do not naturally have the real disease, but which have artificially created symptoms that are similar to those of the disease. Be sure to read the article Why Do Pharmaceutical Drugs Injure & Kill Millions of Humans?
Dr. Beddow Bayly:
"Professor C. Lovatt Evans was reported to have told the British Association at Glasgow in 1928 that "no doctor can use a stethoscope, feel a pulse, take a blood pressure, administer a hypodermic, give an anaesthetic or a transfusion, perform any modern operations or indeed take any steps in diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment without utilising at every turn knowledge derived from results of animal experimentation and obtainable in no other way."
This is a statement fairly typical of the almost incredible nonsense which pro-vivisectionists have the temerity to "broadcast" in their public utterances and writings. It seems almost an insult to the reader's intelligence to assume that it requires an answer. However, let us take the claims in order:
1. The stethoscope was invented by Flaennec when, in 1819, he screwed up a roll of paper in order to listen to the chest of a stout patient.
2. Hua Tu, one of the ablest physicians of all time, lived in China 2,000 years ago and developed a high degree of accuracy in diagnosis by feeling the radial pulse; he was also a pioneer in abdominal operations (under anaesthetic drugs), and removed diseased lengths of bowel, suturing sound portions without infection. He was also versed in the action of the glands upon the body and practised organotherapy. In this latter connection it is interesting to recall that Dr. Langdon Brown told the British Medical Association in 1925 that "the pioneer observations were made at the bedside. Gull & Ord discovered the functions of the thyroid, when the laboratories had made no more helpful suggestion than that it was merely helpful to improve the contour of the neck. Addison was the first to point out the function of the adrenals, while the role of the pituitary was recognised clinically from the symptoms of acromegaly."
3. Ability to estimate blood-pressure was gained by a study of the laws of hydrodynamics. In 1733, experiments upon animals, in which tubes were inserted into animal's arteries, had been found to be totally inapplicable to man; they contributed nothing to our knowledge of human blood-pressure nor to the invention of the apparatus now used to record it; this was not achieved until many years had elapsed since the futile and cruel animal experiments were performed.
4. The hypodermic syringe was invented by Charles G. Pravaz, a surgeon of Lyons, in 1852; in the following year Alexander Wood, of Edinburgh, used this method for injecting morphia for the relief of neuralgia and thus paved the way for local anaesthesia. Drugs subsequently invented for this purpose could obviously only be tested for efficacy upon human volunteers.
5. Of the respiratory anaesthetics, chloroform was first used by James Simpson in 1847; ether by William Morton in 1846, after experiments upon themselves and friends. Nitrous oxide gas had been suggested by Sir Humphrey Davy as an anaesthetic in 1800, but it was not until 1844 that it was used during the extraction, by a colleague, of a tooth of a dentist named Horace Wells.
6. According to the Medical World, May 12, 1939: "The father of spinal anaesthesia is August Bier, a German doctor who in 1898 injected a 1 per cent solution of cocaine into his own spinal canal in order to observe its effects."
7. The new basal anaesthetics, which are applied by rectal injection, were the direct outcome of clinical observation of the action of avertin, first used to allay the spasms of whooping-cough. Other drugs of the same chemical series followed. As the Report of the Royal Commission on Vivisection (1912) declared: "The discovery of anaesthetics owes nothing to experiments on animals."
8. The first human blood-transfusion was made by Andre Libavius in 1594 when, for a large reward, the blood of a young man was passed into the veins of an older man. Modern technique depends upon a careful matching of blood-types, and no animal experiments have, or could have, helped in this essential particular.
9. Animal experiments for surgical skill have already been shown to be illegal in this country; abroad, we may sum the matter up in the words of Dr.A.Desjardins, President of the Society of Surgeons in Paris: "I have never known a single good operator who has learned anything whatever from experiments on animals".
10. There is hardly a useful drug in the British Pharmacopoeia which owes anything to animal experiments. Even the so-called biological standardisation is so unreliable that efforts are continually being made to replace it by chemical tests in the few cases in which it is employed. There is plenty of evidence to show that animal experiments on creatures differing from man in nearly every particular have been both misleading and dangerous. Moreover, there is one complete system of medicine, the Homoeopathic, practised by an increasing number of physicians for over a hundred years, which is based upon principles that entirely rule out the validity of animal experiments, all tests of the action of drugs being made upon human volunteers.
Did space permit, every branch of knowledge utilised by medical practitioners might similarly be shown to be independent of animal experiments, but this brief article may fitly be concluded by a quotation from an article in the Medical World, April 12 1940, in which G.E. Donovan, M.B., B.Ch,BAO, DPH, declares:
"Instruments like the stethoscope, thermometer, microscope, opthalmoscope, X-rays, etc. made modern clinical medicine. Take them away and you have practically nothing left." Yet none of these was discovered, or its use developed through experiments upon animals.